Some researchers have extensively studied individual springs. Dean Blinn of Northern Arizona University conducted comprehensive studies and published extensively about the unique ecology of Montezuma Well in Arizona (Blinn 2008, Runck and Blinn 1994, Wagner and Blinn 2000). Researchers have extensively studied Devils Hole spring in the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge of Nevada, primarily because it supports an endangered endemic species, the Devil’s Hole pupfish (Landwehr 2004). Tim Graham’s study (1997) of Knowles Canyon Hanging Garden in Glen Canyon, Utah focused on effects of fire on vegetation and soils.
Springs as Water Features
Some researchers have included springs along with studies of other water resources such as streams, lakes, and ponds (Brown and Moran 1979, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council 2002, 2004). Wells and tanks are sometimes grouped as springs. Yet although springs provide baseflow for streams and rivers, and often are the primary source of water for ponds and lakes, their ecology is fundamentally different from other aquatic habitats, and therefore requires different inventory, assessment, and restoration methods.
Springs Within a Landscape
Most studies of springs across landscapes focus on a single characteristic, such as water chemistry, groundwater modeling, or geomorphology (Flora 2004, Rice 2007, Hallam 2010). (continued)